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编程中 动态链接和静态链接 详解  

2008-07-24 17:45:32|  分类: 程序设计 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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原文地址:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_(computer_science)#Microsoft_Windows

看一下红色部分就明白了

另外还可以参考 Linux文档 http://www.dwheeler.com/program-library/Program-Library-HOWTO/index.html

In computer science, a library is a collection of subroutines used to develop software. Libraries contain code and data that provide services to independent programs. This allows code and data to be shared and changed in a modular fashion. Some executables are both standalone programs and libraries, but most libraries are not executables. Executables and libraries make references known as links to each other through the process known as linking, which is typically done by a linker.

Most modern operating systems (OS) provide libraries that implement the majority of system services. Such libraries have commoditized the services a modern application expects an OS to provide. As such, most code used by modern applications is provided in these libraries.

History

The earliest programming concepts analogous to libraries were intended to separate data definitions from the program implementation. The COMPOOL (Communication Pool) concept was brought to popular attention by JOVIAL in 1959, although it borrowed the idea from the large-system SAGE software. Following the computer science principles of Separation of Concerns and Information Hiding, "Comm Pool's purpose was to permit the sharing of System Data among many programs by providing a centralized data description." (Wexelblat 1981:369)

COBOL also included "primitive capabilities for a library system" in 1959 (Wexelblat 1981:274), but Jean Sammet described them as "inadequate library facilities" in retrospect. (Wexelblat 1981:258)

Another major contributor to the modern library concept was the subprogram innovation of FORTRAN. FORTRAN subprograms can be compiled independently of each other, but the compiler lacks a linker, so type checking between subprograms is impossible. (Wilson et al. 1988:126)

Finally, the influential Simula 67 cannot be overlooked. Simula was the first object-oriented programming language, and its classes are nearly identical to the modern concept as used in Java, C++, and C#. The class concept of Simula was also a progenitor of the package in Ada and the module of Modula-2. (Wilson et al. 1988:52) Even when originally developed in 1965, Simula classes could be included in library files and added at compile time. (Wexelblat 1981:716)

Types

Static libraries

Main article: Static Library

Historically, libraries could only be static. A static library, also known as an archive, consists of a set of routines which are copied into a target application by the compiler, linker, or binder, producing object files and a stand-alone executable file. This process, and the stand-alone executable file, are known as a static build of the target application. Actual addresses for jumps and other routine calls are stored in a relative or symbolic form which cannot be resolved until all code and libraries are assigned final static addresses.

The linker resolves all of the unresolved addresses into fixed or relocatable addresses (from a common base) by loading all code and libraries into actual runtime memory locations. This linking process can take as much, or more time than the compilation process, and must be performed when any of the modules is recompiled. Most compiled languages have a standard library (for example, the C standard library) but programmers can also create their own custom libraries. Commercial compiler publishers provide both standard and custom libraries with their compiler products.

A linker may work on specific types of object files, and thus require specific (compatible) types of libraries. Collecting object files into a static library may ease their distribution and use. A client, either a program or a library subroutine, accesses a library object by referencing just its name. The linking process resolves references by searching the libraries in the order given. Usually, it is not considered an error if a name can be found multiple times in a given set of libraries

Dynamic linking

Dynamic linking means that the subroutines of a library are loaded into an application program at runtime, rather than being linked in at compile time, and remain as separate files on disk. Only a minimum amount of work is done at compile time by the linker; it only records what library routines the program needs and the index names or numbers of the routines in the library. The majority of the work of linking is done at the time the application is loaded (loadtime) or during execution (runtime). The necessary linking code, called a loader, is actually part of the underlying operating system. At the appropriate time the loader finds the relevant libraries on disk and adds the relevant data from the libraries to the process's memory space.

Some operating systems can only link in a library at loadtime, before the process starts executing; others may be able to wait until after the process has started to execute and link in the library just when it is actually referenced (i.e., during runtime). The latter is often called "delay loading". In either case, such a library is called a dynamically linked library.

The nature of dynamic linking makes it a common boundary in software licenses.

Plugins are one common usage of dynamically linked libraries, which is especially useful when the libraries can be replaced by other libraries with a similar interface, but different functionality. Software may be said to have a "plugin architecture" if it uses libraries for core functionality with the intention that they can be replaced. Note, however, that the use of dynamically linked libraries in an application's architecture does not necessarily mean that they may be replaced.

Dynamic linking was originally developed in the Multics operating system, starting in 1964. It was also a feature of MTS (the Michigan Terminal System), built in the late 1960s.[1] In Microsoft Windows, dynamically-linked libraries are called dynamic-link libraries or "DLLs".

Relocation

One wrinkle that the loader must handle is that the actual location in memory of the library data cannot be known until after the executable and all dynamically linked libraries have been loaded into memory. This is because the memory locations used depend on which specific dynamic libraries have been loaded. It is not possible to depend on the absolute location of the data in the executable, nor even in the library, since conflicts between different libraries would result: if two of them specified the same or overlapping addresses, it would be impossible to use both in the same program.

However, in practice, the shared libraries on most systems do not change often. Therefore, it is possible to compute a likely load address for every shared library on the system before it is needed, and store that information in the libraries and executables. If every shared library that is loaded has undergone this process, then each will load at their predetermined addresses, which speeds up the process of dynamic linking. This optimization is known as prebinding in Mac OS X and prelinking in Linux. Disadvantages of this technique include the time required to precompute these addresses every time the shared libraries change, the inability to use address space layout randomization, and the requirement of sufficient virtual address space for use (a problem that will be alleviated by the adoption of 64-bit architectures, at least for the time being).

An old method was to examine the program at load time and replace all references to data in the libraries with pointers to the appropriate memory locations once all libraries have been loaded. On Windows 3.1 (and some embedded systems such as Texas Instruments calculators), the references to patch were arranged as linked lists, allowing easy enumeration and replacement. Nowadays, most dynamic library systems link a symbol table with blank addresses into the program at compile time. All references to code or data in the library pass through this table, the import directory. At load time the table is modified with the location of the library code/data by the loader/linker. This process is still slow enough to significantly affect the speed of programs that call other programs at a very high rate, such as certain shell scripts.

The library itself contains a jump table of all the methods within it, known as entry points. Calls into the library "jump through" this table, looking up the location of the code in memory, then calling it. This introduces overhead in calling into the library, but the delay is usually so small as to be negligible.

Locating libraries at runtime

Main article: Dynamic linker

Dynamic linkers/loaders vary widely in functionality. Some depend on explicit paths to the libraries being stored in the executable. Any change to the library naming or layout of the filesystem will cause these systems to fail. More commonly, only the name of the library (and not the path) is stored in the executable, with the operating system supplying a system to find the library on-disk based on some algorithm.

One of the biggest disadvantages of dynamic linking is that the executables depend on the separately stored libraries in order to function properly. If the library is deleted, moved, or renamed, or if an incompatible version of the DLL is copied to a place that is earlier in the search, the executable could malfunction or even fail to load; damaging vital library files used by almost any executable in the system (such as the C library de<libc.sode< on Unix systems) will usually render the system completely unusable. On Windows this is commonly known as DLL hell.

Unix-like systems

Most Unix-like systems have a "search path" specifying file system directories in which to look for dynamic libraries. On some systems, the default path is specified in a configuration file; in others, it is hard coded into the dynamic loader. Some executable file formats can specify additional directories in which to search for libraries for a particular program. This can usually be overridden with an environment variable, although it is disabled for setuid and setgid programs, so that a user can't force such a program to run arbitrary code. Developers of libraries are encouraged to place their dynamic libraries in places in the default search path. On the downside, this can make installation of new libraries problematic, and these "known" locations quickly become home to an increasing number of library files, making management more complex.

Microsoft Windows

Microsoft Windows will check the registry to determine the proper place to find an ActiveX DLL, but for other DLLs it will check the directory that the program was loaded from; the current working directory; any directories set by calling the de<SetDllDirectory()de< function; the System32, System, and Windows directories; and finally the directories specified by the PATH environment variable.[2] Applications written for the .NET Framework framework (since in 2002), also check the Global Assembly Cache as the primary store of shared dll files to remove the issue of DLL hell.

OpenStep

OpenStep used a more flexible system, collecting a list of libraries from a number of known locations (similar to the PATH concept) when the system first starts. Moving libraries around causes no problems at all, although there is a time cost when first starting the system.

AmigaOS

Under AmigaOS generic system libraries are stored in a directory defined by the LIBS: path assignment and application-specific libraries can be stored in the same directory as the application's executable. AmigaOS will search these locations when an executable attempts to launch a shared library. An application may also supply an explicit path when attempting to launch a library.

Shared libraries

In addition to being loaded statically or dynamically, libraries are also often classified according to how they are shared among programs. Dynamic libraries almost always offer some form of sharing, allowing the same library to be used by multiple programs at the same time. Static libraries, by definition, cannot be shared. The term "linker" comes from the process of copying procedures or subroutines which may come from "relocatable" libraries and adjusting or "linking" the machine address to the final locations of each module.

The shared library term is slightly ambiguous, because it covers at least two different concepts. First, it is the sharing of code located on disk by unrelated programs. The second concept is the sharing of code in memory, when programs execute the same physical page of RAM, mapped into different address spaces. It would seem that the latter would be preferable, and indeed it has a number of advantages. For instance on the OpenStep system, applications were often only a few hundred kilobytes in size and loaded almost instantly; the vast majority of their code was located in libraries that had already been loaded for other purposes by the operating system. There is a cost, however; shared code must be specifically written to run in a multitasking environment. In some older environments such as 16 bit Windows or MPE for the HP 3000, only stack based data (local) was allowed, or other significant restrictions were placed on writing a DLL.

RAM sharing can be accomplished by using position independent code as in Unix, which leads to a complex but flexible architecture, or by using position dependent code as in Windows and OS/2. These systems make sure, by various tricks like pre-mapping the address space and reserving slots for each DLL, that code has a great probability of being shared. Windows DLLs are not shared libraries in the Unix sense. The rest of this section concentrates on aspects common to both variants.

In most modern operating systems, shared libraries can be of the same format as the "regular" executables. This allows two main advantages: first, it requires making only one loader for both of them, rather than two (having the single loader is considered well worth its added complexity). Secondly, it allows the executables also to be used as DLLs, if they have a symbol table. Typical executable/DLL formats are ELF and Mach-O (both in Unix) and PE (Windows). In Windows, the concept was taken one step further, with even system resources such as fonts being bundled in the DLL file format. The same is true under OpenStep, where the universal "bundle" format is used for almost all system resources.

The term DLL is mostly used on Windows and OS/2 products. On Unix and Unix-like platforms, the term shared library or shared object is more commonly used; consequently, the most common filename extension for shared library files is de<.sode<, usually followed by another dot and a version number. This is technically justified in view of the different semantics. More explanations are available in the position independent code article.

In some cases, an operating system can become overloaded with different versions of DLLs, which impedes its performance and stability. Such a scenario is known as DLL hell. Most modern operating systems, after 2001, have clean-up methods to eliminate such situations.

Dynamic loading

Main article: Dynamic loading

Dynamic loading is a subset of dynamic linking where a dynamically linked library loads and unloads at run-time on request. Such a request may be made implicitly at compile-time or explicitly at run-time. Implicit requests are made at compile-time when a linker adds library references that include file paths or simply file names. Explicit requests are made when applications make direct calls to an operating system's API at runtime.

Most operating systems that support dynamically linked libraries also support dynamically loading such libraries via a run-time linker API. For instance, Microsoft Windows uses the API functions LoadLibrary, LoadLibraryEx, FreeLibrary and GetProcAddress with Microsoft Dynamic Link Libraries; POSIX based systems, including most UNIX and UNIX-like systems, use dlopen, dlclose and dlsym. Some development systems automate this process.

Object Libraries

Although dynamic linking was originally developed in the 1960s, it did not reach consumer operating systems until the late 1980s; it was generally available in some form in most operating systems by the early 1990s. It was during this same period that object-oriented programming (OOP) was becoming a significant part of the programming landscape. OOP with runtime binding requires additional information that traditional libraries don't supply; in addition to the names and entry points of the code located within, they also require a list of the objects on which they depend. This is a side-effect of one of OOP's main advantages, inheritance, which means that the complete definition of any method may be defined in a number of places. This is more than simply listing that one library requires the services of another; in a true OOP system, the libraries themselves may not be known at compile time, and vary from system to system.

At the same time another common area for development was the idea of multi-tier programs, in which a "display" running on a desktop computer would use the services of a mainframe or minicomputer for data storage or processing. For instance, a program on a GUI-based computer would send messages to a minicomputer to return small samples of a huge dataset for display. Remote procedure calls already handled these tasks, but there was no standard RPC system.

It was not long before the majority of the minicomputer and mainframe vendors were working on projects to combine the two, producing an OOP library format that could be used anywhere. Such systems were known as object libraries, or distributed objects if they supported remote access (not all did). Microsoft's COM is an example of such a system for local use, DCOM a modified version that support remote access.

For some time object libraries were the "next big thing" in the programming world. There were a number of efforts to create systems that would run across platforms, and companies competed to try to get developers locked into their own system. Examples include IBM's System Object Model (SOM/DSOM), Sun Microsystems' Distributed Objects Everywhere (DOE), NeXT's Portable Distributed Objects (PDO), Digital's ObjectBroker, Microsoft's Component Object Model (COM/DCOM), and any number of CORBA-based systems.

In the end, it turned out that OOP libraries were not the next big thing. With the exception of Microsoft's COM and NeXT's (now Apple Computer) PDO, all[citation needed] of these efforts have since ended.

The JAR file format is mainly used for object libraries in the Java programming language. It consists of (sometimes compressed) classes in bytecode format and is loaded by a java virtual machine or special class loaders.

Naming

de<libfoo.ade< and de<libfoo.sode< files are placed in directories like de</libde<, de</usr/libde< or de</usr/local/libde<. The filenames always start with de<libde<, and end with de<.ade< (archive, static library) or de<.sode< (shared object, dynamically linked library), with an optional interface number. For example de<libfoo.so.2de< is the second major interface revision of the dynamically linked library de<libfoode<. Old Unix versions would use major and minor library revision numbers (de<libfoo.so.1.2de<) while contemporary Unixes will only use major revision numbers (de<libfoo.so.1de<). Dynamically loaded libraries are placed in de</usr/libexecde< and similar directories. The de<.lade< files sometimes found in the library directories are libtool archives, not usable by the system as such.
The system inherits static library conventions from BSD, with the library being in a de<.ade< file, and can use de<.sode<-style dynamically-linked libraries (with the de<.dylibde< suffix instead). Most libraries in Mac OS X, however, are "frameworks", placed inside of special directories called "bundles", which wrap the library's required files and metadata. For example a library called "My Neat Library" would be implemented in a bundle called "My Neat Library.framework".
de<*.DLLde< files are dynamically linkable libraries. Other file name patterns may be used for specific purpose DLLs, e.g. de<*.OCXde< for OCX control libraries. The interface revisions are either encoded in the files, or abstracted away using COM-object interfaces. Depending on how they are compiled, de<*.LIBde< files can be either static libraries or representations of dynamically linkable libraries needed only during compilation, known as "Import Libraries". Unlike in the UNIX world, where different file extensions are used, when linking against de<.LIBde< file in Windows one must first know if it is a regular static library or an import library. In the latter case, a de<.DLLde< file must be present at runtime.
注意上面红色一段说的内容,VC是可以生成两种类型的 lib文件的。 通过创建 win32 static library 工程生成的 lib是 静态库,是包含实际实现代码在里面的。而通过编写 win32 dll工程时,如果指定def文件,也会附加生成lib文件,这个lib又叫import library,是没有实际的实现代码在里面的。

编程中 动态链接和静态链接 详解 - widebright - widebright的个人空间

编程中 动态链接和静态链接 详解 - widebright - widebright的个人空间

编程中 动态链接和静态链接 详解 - widebright - widebright的个人空间
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